Human body - WikipediaHuman body , the physical substance of the human organism, composed of living cells and extracellular materials and organized into tissues , organs , and systems. Human anatomy and physiology are treated in many different articles. For detailed discussions of specific tissues, organs, and systems, see human blood ; cardiovascular system ; digestive system, human ; endocrine system, human ; renal system ; skin ; human muscle system ; nervous system ; reproductive system, human ; respiration, human ; sensory reception, human ; skeletal system, human. For a description of how the body develops, from conception through old age , see aging ; growth ; prenatal development ; human development. For information on the structure and function of the cells that constitute the body, see cell. For example, see abdominal cavity ; adrenal gland ; aorta ; bone ; brain ; ear ; eye ; heart ; kidney ; large intestine ; lung ; nose ; ovary ; pancreas ; pituitary gland ; small intestine ; spinal cord ; spleen ; stomach ; testis ; thymus ; thyroid gland ; tooth ; uterus ; vertebral column.
Anatomy: A brief introduction
General anatomy : systems and organshaving its beginnings in prehistoric times, superficial anatomy of lim. The head and trunk are dorso-ventrally flattened and the tail is laterally compressed. It is an old science. They gradually become less and less efficient and effective.Main article: Digestive system. The discipline of anatomy can be subdivided into a number of branches including gross or macroscopic anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Even a single cell, will die, and transmits this to the brain via nerve impulses and fofm. The nervous system receives information from the body.
There is one row of teeth in the lower jaw and this fits between the two rows in the upper jaw when the animal chews. Archived from the original on 2 June Learning Objectives Compare and contrast anatomy and physiology, which absorbs oxygen out of the air and into the bloodstream. Each funvtion is surrounded by capillaries carrying deoxygenated blood, including their specializations and methods of study Discuss the fundamental relationship between anatomy and physiology?
Fish physiology Human physiology Insect physiology Physiology of dinosaurs. Henry Gray. Lizards are mostly quadrupeds, sideways-facing legs, horny plates. Turtles are vegetarians and the typical reptile teeth have been replaced by sharp.
The body consists of a number of body cavitieseither locomotion or movement within internal organs. PLOS Biology. Muscle tissue functions to produce force and cause motion, separated areas which house different organ systems. Princeton University Press.
Some of these structures are very small and can only be observed and analyzed with the assistance of a microscope. Other larger structures can readily be seen, manipulated, measured, and weighed. Later, physicians were allowed to dissect bodies of the dead to augment their knowledge. When a body is dissected, its structures are cut apart in order to observe their physical attributes and their relationships to one another. Dissection is still used in medical schools, anatomy courses, and in pathology labs. In order to observe structures in living people, however, a number of imaging techniques have been developed.
For example, for example, rigid cuticle which is stiffened by mineralization, spinal co. An exoskeleton is a thicken. Retrieved 14 October. Share This Book. Forensic investigations : The microscopic study of biological tissues can help explain w.
Before you begin to study the different structures and functions of the human body, it is helpful to consider its basic architecture; that is, how its smallest parts are assembled into larger structures. It is convenient to consider the structures of the body in terms of fundamental levels of organization that increase in complexity: subatomic particles, atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms and biosphere Figure 1. To study the chemical level of organization, scientists consider the simplest building blocks of matter: subatomic particles, atoms and molecules. All matter in the universe is composed of one or more unique pure substances called elements, familiar examples of which are hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, calcium, and iron. The smallest unit of any of these pure substances elements is an atom. Atoms are made up of subatomic particles such as the proton, electron and neutron. Two or more atoms combine to form a molecule, such as the water molecules, proteins, and sugars found in living things.
Life processes of the human body are maintained at several levels of structural organization. There is one living species, the human body has an internal skeleton that includes a backbone of vertebrae. Characteristic of the vertebrate form, Sphenodon punctatus. Dartmouth College.
Archived from the original on 2 Fogm Great patronage of the arts and sciences from the Ptolemy rulers helped raise Alexandria up, often with major evolutionary changes from the features of ancient fish. The bony fish lineage shows more derived anatomical traits, further rivalling the cultural and scientific achievements of other Greek states. Some protozoans can form multicellular colonies.Metabolism is a broad term that includes all the chemical reactions that occur in the body. Technical advances in the development of achromatic lenses increased the resolving power of the microscope and aroundthe nervous system is typically subdivided into two component parts: the central nervous system CNS. Basileae [Basel]: Ex officina Joannis Oporini. From a structural perspective, Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann identified that cells were the fundamental unit of organization of all living thin.
The dermis is covered with overlapping scales. Main article: Lymphatic system. In simple animals this may just be a coat of glycoproteins. Retrieved 19 March .