Atoms radiation and radiation protection pdf

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atoms radiation and radiation protection pdf

Ionizing radiation - Wikipedia

Ionizing radiation ionising radiation is radiation that carries sufficient energy to detach electrons from atoms or molecules , thereby ionizing them. Gamma rays , X-rays , and the higher ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum are ionizing, whereas the lower ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum and all the spectrum below UV, including visible light including nearly all types of laser light , infrared , microwaves , and radio waves are considered non-ionizing radiation. The boundary between ionizing and non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation that occurs in the ultraviolet is not sharply defined, since different molecules and atoms ionize at different energies. Typical ionizing subatomic particles found in radioactive decay include alpha particles , beta particles and neutrons. Almost all products of radioactive decay are ionizing because the energy of radioactive decay is typically far higher than that required to ionize.
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Atoms: Ionizing Radiation, Part 1, V2 Newest Version

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Ionizing radiation

Nuclear energy: the heat energy produced by the process of nuclear fission within a nuclear reactor or by radioactive decay. At energies beyond keV, photons ionize matter increasingly through the Compton effect. Eidelman; T. See also chronic exposur.

Cutaneous Radiation Syndrome CRS : the complex syndrome resulting from radiation exposure of more than rads to the skin. Retrieved 11 November Although they can be stopped by a thin sheet of aluminum, potentially causing burns. Co emits beta particles and gamma rays during radioactive decay!

Absolute risk: the proportion of a population expected to get a disease over a specified time period. See also risk , relative risk.
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Dose reconstruction: scientific procedures that assist with 4 activities - managing victims of radiation emergencies, such as providing input to decisions on protection of emergency workers and members of the public or medical treatment of exposed individuals; providing exposed individuals or populations with information about the doses they received; investigating dose-response relationships in epidemiologic studies; determining whether individuals whose disease might have been induced by radiation qualify for compensation. First responders generally work at or near the incident radoation. These high-energy charged nuclei are blocked by Earth's magnetic field but pose a major health concern for astronauts traveling to the moon and to any distant location beyond the earth orbit. Free delivery worldwide. However, alpha particles and all but extremely high-energy beta particles are not considered penetrating radiation.

All radionuclides are uniquely identified by the type of radiation they emit, the energy of the radiation, and their half-life. The activity — used as a measure of the amount of a radionuclide present — is expressed in a unit called the becquerel Bq : one becquerel is one disintegration per second. The half-life is the time required for the activity of a radionuclide to decrease by decay to half of its initial value. The half-life of a radioactive element is the time that it takes for one half of its atoms to disintegrate. This can range from a mere fraction of a second to millions of years e.

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Select Format Select format. Most astronomical " gamma-ray astronomy " are known not to originate in nuclear radioactive processes but, rath. Dose coefficient: the factor used to convert radionuclide intake to dose. These high-energy charged nuclei are blocked by Earth's magnetic field but pose a major health concern for astronauts traveling to the moon and to any distant location beyond the earth orbit.

Unit of measure is Gray? Atomic mass unit amu : 1 amu is equal to one twelfth of the mass of a carbon atom! See also chronic exposureexposure. Sievert is calculated as follows: Gray multiplied by the "radiation weighting factor" also known as the "quality factor" associated with a specific type of radiaation.

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